Food Glycaemic Index
Updated: Feb 1, 2020
Glycaemic Index measures how fast a given food raises your blood sugar level. This is important while creating a diet for diabetics. However, GI also plays an important role for the people seeking to lose weight.
Glucose is used as a reference with a value of 100, GI for other carbohydrates (starches) is a relative value to glucose. The numbers given have been compiled from many different sources available to the public. These numbers will be close, but not identical to any one given study. The GI also varies on the ripeness cooking time and cooking methods employed. The meats have no Carbohydrates, so they are not included here. Leafy vegetables have low GI and are not included.
Rice is a common part of Indian Cuisine and deserves a better understanding. Rice can have moderate to high GI. There are two types of starch: Amylose and Amylopectin. Long grain rice has 22 percent Amylose and 78% Amylopectin while medium/short grain rice has 18 percent Amylose and 82 percent Amylopectin. Therefore the higher the Amylopectin, the stickier the texture. Cooking makes gelatinizes starch, so that human body can digest it and converts it into simple sugar.
The important factor is the ratio of Amylose to Amylopectin. Higher the Amylose, lower the GI. Therefore, the long grain rice have lower GI than short grain rice. The bran in brown rice makes lowers the GI further. This makes the Brown Basmati Rice to have the lower GI among most of the rice from India.
Potatoes are another important part of Indian Cuisine. All root vegetables have moderate to high GI. White potatoes have lower nutritional value than the root vegetables; that are rich in colour. Sweet potatoes is a great alternative to white potatoes, with a GI of 54.
The GI index made simple:
The high GI are any foods with a GI above 70.
Moderate GI is from 55 – 70.
Low GI is below 55.